Nce of vancomycin by means of Raman spectroscopy. Multivariate statistical analysis

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To enable the spectroscopic analysis directly with patient samples (such as urine) Raman spectroscopy was combined with dielectrophoresis. Bacteria from suspensions were captured and kept at well-defined positions in a nonuniform electric field for the time of Raman measurement. Currently, bacteria-spiked model urine is used. However, the investigations shall be extended to urine from patients. Results: A clear distinction between Raman spectra of E. faecalis with and without antibiotic treatment is possible even 30 minutes after incubation with vancomycin. A quadrupole electrode design is presented that allows the efficient capturing of E. faecalis and Escherichia coli, by means of negative dielectrophoresis [1] (Figure 1a). From the captured bacteria in solution on the dielectrophoretic chip, high-quality Raman spectra have been recorded within 1 second (Figure 1b). These spectra allowed a reliable differentiation of the two commonly encountered bacterial species in urinary tract infections: E. faecalis and E. coli. First steps have been undertaken to implement such dielectrophoretic capturing structures into a microfluidic device for simplified sample handling. Conclusion: Raman spectroscopy in combination with statistical analysis holds the potential for a fast evaluation of bacterial antibiotic susceptibility without the need of time-consuming cultivation. Reference 1. Schr er U, Glaser U, Leiterer C, Cs i A, Fritzsche W, CI-994 Acetyldinaline PubMed ID:https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22161446 Bauer M, Popp J, Neugebauer U: Micromanipulation of sepsis relevant bacteria with dielectrophoresis. Infection 2011, 39(Suppl 2):S104.Background: Hemodynamic monitoring plays PubMed ID:https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22610350 a key role in the early recognition, optimization of interventions and monitoring of therapeutic response in children with septic shock. Assessing the need for fluids followed by rapid and timely fluid resuscitation is crucial for improved outcomes. It is in this context that fluid responsiveness, defined as an increase in cardiac output in response to a fluid challenge, assumes importance. We have done this prospective clinical study to evaluate the degree of IVC diameter variability in predicting fluid responsiveness (increment in stroke index 15 ) in children with septic shock post 20 ml/kg of crystalloid (0.9 saline) resuscitation. Methods: A total of 166 episodes of preload responsiveness check were echocardiographically evaluated in 41 children with septic shock. In each episode, IVC diameter variability ((maximum - minimum IVC diameter)/ maximum IVC diameter), stroke index and LY294002 chemical information ejection fraction were assessed at two points (before preload T0 and after preload T1). Adequate sedation was ensured before each echocardiographic assessment. Infants