APOBEC has been reported to be a restriction factor for multiple

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Similar to foamy virus, HBV features a reverse transcriptase that copies packaged pregenomic RNA into DNA (NCI) (Guillozet jir.2014.0021 et al., 2003; Markesbery, 2010, 2006). The clinical concept of MCI was inside scan/nsw074 the nascent capsid of the producer cells (Jones and Hu, 2013). Unlike retroviruses, the reverse trascriptase is covalently attached towards the 5 end of the minus-strand DNA and doesn't completely total plus strand synthesis inside producer cells. The remaining single-stranded DNA region represents a organic target for APOBEC family members enzymes (Beggel et al., 2013). An initial report applying Huh7 hepatoma cells suggested that HBV DNA does not exhibit G-to-A hypermutation following transfection of A3G, but that pregenomic RNA was inefficiently packaged (Seppen, 2004; Turelli et al., 2004). A3G appeared related with viral cores within the cytoplasm, and equivalent observations have been made for A3B, A3C, A3F, and A3G in an additional hepatoma cell line (Susp e et al., 2005; Turelli et al., 2004). Further investigation revealed that G-to-A hypermutations had been observed at low frequencies (